এই সুতোর পাতাগুলি [1] [2]     এই পাতায় আছে17--47


           বিষয় : আমার ঋত্বিক
          বিভাগ : অন্যান্য
          শুরু করেছেন :কল্লোল
          IP Address : 116.51.240.31 (*)          Date:24 Jul 2017 -- 12:02 PM




Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 116.51.240.31 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 08:09 AM

ছবি ধরে ধরে লিখতে গেলে, আবার ছবিগুলো দেখতে হবে। এখন অন্ততঃ সে সময় নেই। তাই ওভাবে লিখবো না।
কেউ লিখলে লিখুন।
আমি বরং আমার ঋত্বিককে নিয়েই লিখি।

ঋত্বিকের সাথে দেখা করতে গেছেন অভিজিৎ।
তখন অভিজিৎ যাদবপুরের তুলনামূলক সাহিত্য। নরেশ গুহ-বুদ্ধদেব বসুর ছাত্র। ওর কথায় একটা কেমন একটা সুর-ও-ছন্দ থাকতো। সেটা বুদ্ধদেববাবুর প্রভাব। বুদ্ধদেব বলতেন - বাংলাভাষার একটা ছন্দ আছে, আমি চাই আমার ছাত্রেরা সেই ছন্দ কথা বলুক। ছন্দটি কেমন? মুনমুন সেনের বাংলা ডায়লগ ডেলিভারীর মতন। সেও তো একই পাঠশালায় পড়তো।
তো, ঋত্বিকের সাথে দেখা করতে গেছেন অভিজিৎ। উদ্দেশ্য ওদের পত্রিকার জন্য একটি লেখা। সম্ভবতঃ চেতলার বাড়ি। অভিজিৎ তার ছন্দে বলা বাংলায় লেখা চাইতেই, সপাট জবাব
- শুয়ার, পোঁদে মারবো এক লাথি। ঠিক করে কথা বল, তবে লেখা দেবো। আর পাঁচটা টাকা দে মাল খাবো।
সারাজীবনের মতো অভিজিৎএর বাংলা বলা পাল্টে গেছিলো।





Name:  dd          

IP Address : 116.51.27.74 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 09:17 AM

আচ্ছা আচ্ছা, অ্যানেকডোট বুঝি? আম্মো দুটি দেই।

এটি তথ্য। যদুপুরের এক পত্রিকায় ইন্টার্ভ্যু নিলে ঋত্তিক বলেন "গান্ধী একটি আদ্যন্ত শুয়োরের বাচ্চা ছিলেন"। সমালোচনা যা হয়েছিলো সেটায় কিন্তু যদুপুরের ছাত্রদেরই দূষেছিলো অনেকে। কেনো জেনে শুনে ঋত্তিককে প্রোভোকিত করা হয়েছিলো বাইটের লোভে। এই জন্য।

আরেকটি ঐ আমার ফিল্ম সোসাইটির আড্ডায়। নেহাৎই শোনা কথা। এক আড্ডায় না কি সত্যজিত আর ঋত্তিক মুখোমুখী। ঋত্তিক, লেখাই বাহুল্য একেবারে টং। বললেন (খুবই ভদ্র ভাষায় প্যারাফেজিত) "অমুক তমুক - আর ওগুলো পরিচালক না কি? ফিল্মের ইসে জানে। শুধু একটা লোক (সত্যজিতের দিকে আঙুল তুলে) ক্যামেরাটা কোথায় বসাতে হয় সেইটুকু জানে - বাকীগুলো তো...." । সত্যজিত না কি মুচকায়িত ছিলেন। ঋত্তিকের উপর কেউ রাগতো না। একটা প্রশ্রয় ছিলো।

এর কতোটা দুদ কতোটা জল, সে কি করে জানবো? সেই সত্যজিতও নেই, ঋত্তিকও নেই। শুধু আমি আছি।


Name:  PT          

IP Address : 213.110.242.21 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 10:43 AM

##You’ve worked with the best Bengali film-makers, like Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha, Tarun Majumdar and Ray. Ritwik Ghatak is missing from the list. He wanted you for his ‘Komal Gandhar’, but you refused for the meagre fees he had offered. Do you regret it?

No, there are no regrets. We had plans to work on two-three films, but they fizzled out. I hold him in respect as a film-maker. How many films like Titash Ekti Nadir Naam ever got made? But I think the kind of rapport one requires with a director, we lacked.

##What exactly was lacking?

See, no matter how soft I look, I’m a very stern man inside. Ritwik Ghatak was a tyrant. Once, not only did I go to hit him...I hit him.

##Really? What had happened?

In the 1960s, there was a movement going on within the Bengali film industry. It became divisive and film-making had stopped altogether. The government got together many of us to debate the issue. While Ray, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha and others were on one side, Ritwik was on the other.

At the meeting, we sat on the last bench and I was close to Ritwik. He had some very cheap habits; he would manipulate and rib people. He kept on abusing Satyajit Ray. I didn’t get provoked since I didn’t hold a brief to defend Ray. Maybe he got frustrated at my nonchalance and he used an expletive at me. I jumped at him, held him by his collar and planted a huge blow on him. One blow. I said I’ll bury him right there and that I’m not Satyajit Ray and not a bhoddorlok (gentleman) like him. I had a foul mouth too. People like Mrinalda had to intervene and stop me by force. Ritwik was later asked to speak. He was totally drunk and had received a blow from me. He was totally flustered. He mumbled something but the audience got angry at him being drunk at an important debate. He was brought off the stage and sat brooding in one corner.

Ritwik had many good qualities as a film-maker, but I think he was overrated. More so when one compares him with Satyajit Ray.

##In the way some people compare Ritwik Ghatak favourably against Ray, do you think the former’s Left-leaning politics played a role?

It was typical Bengali kitchen politics. The way grandmothers constantly crib against the neighbour’s wife. There was no real assessment based on intelligence or merit. After Ritwik got admitted to rehab for his alcoholism, I was approached to work in one of his films to help him out. I was a star then and if I agreed, he could easily get a producer. I agreed on the condition that he could drink as much as he wanted to, but only after pack-up. If I found him smelling, I would kick his buttocks and leave the floor. There is nothing wrong in drinking, but why on the floor?

He wanted to do Sansar Simante and the day we were to have a meeting with the producer, Ritwik was nowhere to be seen. We waited and waited, till suddenly the door was flung open and Ritwik came in, swaying like a fern. He couldn’t stand straight. Seeing that, everybody left. I offered to drop him home, but he wanted to go to the Lake (Rabindra Sarobar). I dropped him in the car and he rejoined some lowly creatures and drank dheno (a potent country liquor). So you understand? If I worked with him, we would only have ফৌঘ্ত।
http://www.livemint.com/Leisure/sqHrAba9wpANf37VpPfr1N/If-I-stop-actin
g-I-wont-exist-Soumitra-Chatterjee.html



Name:  sm          

IP Address : 52.110.157.141 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 11:25 AM

ইটা তো পুরো রিভার্স শ্রেণী সংগ্রাম হয়ে গেলো!ঋত্বিক একজন ছিন্নমূল দরিদ্র পরিচালক।সমাজের উঁচু শ্রেণী ওর প্রতিভাকে চেপে ধরতে চাইবেই। কিন্তু ওই যে -পেঁচো মাতাল!
ম্যানিপুলেটিভ হতেও পারে। যা হবার ছিল তাই হয়েছে। মাতাল ঋত্বিক, ক্রিয়েটিভ জিনিয়াস কে গ্রাস করে নিয়েছে।
নো সিম্প্যাথি।
তবে অতো প্রতিবন্ধকতার মধ্যেও যে সব অসামান্য কাজ করে গেছে তাঁর জন্য কুর্নিশ।


Name:  de          

IP Address : 69.185.236.54 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 02:54 PM

ছোটেস - অনেক অনেক ধন্যযোগ - পুরো খনি বানিয়ে গেলেন টইটাকে!


Name:  S          

IP Address : 57.15.6.29 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 03:35 PM

এই হলো ঋত্বিক ঘটক। একদিনে মোটে এইকটা কমেন্ট। অন্য পরিচালক হলে এতোক্ষনে কয়েক পাতা লেখা পড়ে যেতো। কারণ উনার সিনেমা নিয়ে লেখার ক্ষ্যামতা নাই। প্লিজ লিখুন। উনার সিনেমা দেখে যেটা মনে হতো যে দর্শকের মনোরন্জনের কথা মাথায় রেখে সিনেমা বানাতে উনার বয়ে গেছে।


Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.53.145 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 06:23 PM

ছবিগুলো নিয়ে কেউ লিখলে ভালো হতো। আমি এখন পারবো না।
এই টইয়ে খুব বেশী পোস্ট পড়বে না হয়তো। অবশ্য সত্যজিৎ এসে গেছেনা।


Name:  এলেবেলে          

IP Address : 160.129.177.244 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 07:25 PM

আমৃত্যু আমার জীবনে compromise করা সম্ভব নয়। সম্ভব হলে তা অনেক আগেই করতাম এবং ভালো ছেলের মতো বেশ গুছিয়ে বসতাম কেতা নিয়ে। কিন্তু তা হয়ে উঠল না, সম্ভবত হবেও না। তাতে বাঁচতে হয় বাঁচব, না হলে বাঁচব না। তবে ঐ ভাবে শিল্পকে কোলবালিশ করে বাঁচতে চাই না।
... Compromise করলে হয়তো কিছু পয়সা পাওয়া যেত, কিন্তু তার চোরাগলিতে জীবন থাকতে নিজেকে পাচার করতে পারব না।

এসব যিনি বলেন তিনি সর্ববরেণ্য হতে পারেন না । তিনি ঈশ্বর নন, ত্রুটিবিচ্যুতি সমেত আস্ত একটা মানুষ । নিটোল নন, খানিকটা এবড়োখেবড়ো । তা হোক এখনও অসংখ্য মানুষ ভাবেন দুগ্গাঠাকুরের ঝলমলে সাজ দেখে অভিভূত হওয়ার অধিকার যেমন প্রত্যেকের আছে, তেমনই দুগ্গাঠাকুরের পেছনের খড়মাটির নিষ্প্রাণ দিকটা দেখার হকও সকলের আছে । সেভাবে বিচার হোক ঋত্বিকের, তিনি তো সাত্ত্বিক ব্রাহ্ম নন । কাজেই ঋত্বিকের জোর, ঋত্বিকের দুর্বলতা সমস্তটাই উঠে আসুক এই টইতে । যদি না ভাবেন যে ছোঁড়া খুব ফাটাচ্ছে, তাহলে ঋত্বিক চর্চার প্রয়োজনীয় কিছু বইপত্রর উল্লেখ করতে পারি এখানে যাতে এটার একটা আর্কাইভ্যাল ভ্যালু থাকে । ছবি ধরে ধরে আলোচনা হোক, তার সমস্তটাই শাশ্বত সৌন্দর্যময় এমন বলার কোনও দরকারই নেই ।

সৌমিত্র-র বক্তব্যর পাশাপাশি এটাও থাক, সত্যজিৎ যখন এসেই গেছেন
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/Daughter-protests-Soum
itra-remark-on-brawl-with-Ghatak/articleshow/54504708.cms




Name:  Atoz          

IP Address : 161.141.85.8 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 08:40 PM

দারুণ। চমৎকার লাগছে পড়তে। কত ভালো ভালো লিংক ও এসেছে! অনেক ধন্যবাদ। আলোচনা চালিয়ে যান প্লীজ।


Name:  Rabaahuta          

IP Address : 37.59.84.207 (*)          Date:25 Jul 2017 -- 09:30 PM

এমনিতে তো সবই ভালো, কিন্তু এই, অন্য পরিচালক হলে কয়েক পাতা, তার সিনেমা নিয়ে লেখার ক্ষ্যামতা নেই, এই টইয়ে বেশী লেখা পড়বে না এইসব পড়ে একটু বিরাগ হয় আরকি।

নাহয় উনি উচ্চ্চমেধাদের জন্যে ছবি বানিয়েছেন, তা বলে নিম্নমেধাদের হ্যাটা না দিলেই কি হয়না? বাজারী ছবি দেখি বলে তো আর বানের জলে ভেসে আসিনি।

এমনিতেই তো পড়ছি, হ্যাটা করলে কি আর বেশী পড়বো? মানে যদি পাতি পাবলিকের পড়াটা ম্যাটার করে আরকি।


Name:  রেফারেন্স          

IP Address : 127.194.196.110 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 02:42 AM

‘ঋত্বিক ঘটকঃ একটি ব্যক্তিগত তীর্থযাত্রা, একটি আবেগায়িত উন্মোচন, আপাতভাবে’
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B84ka3JOiOF0S2tNTTFSdTdXZE0

সুবিমল মিশ্র on ঋত্বিক ঘটক। ২.৭ এম বি। এলেবেলের রেফারেন্স অনুযায়ী। গুগাবাবার টই থেকে এখানেও এনে রাখলাম।

সাথে ফাউ রইল হিরণ মিত্র। বিমূর্ত-এর আরেক কারিগরের চোখে ঋত্বিক -

http://eisamay.indiatimes.com/sunday-special-rabibaroari/cover-story/a
bout-hrithik-ghotok/articleshow/30287142.cms



Name:  S          

IP Address : 57.15.9.102 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 09:51 AM

@ Rabaahuta, না না হ্যঠা নয়। আমি নিজেও তো লিখতে পারবো না - ক্ষ্যমতা নেই। হতাশা যে এরকম একজন ডিরেক্টর আমরা পেয়েও হারালাম।


Name:  s          

IP Address : 108.209.202.160 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:44 AM


নেট থেকে সংগ্রহিত। মূল সাক্ষাৎকার বাংলায়। নিয়েছেন প্রবীর সেন।
-------------------------
An interview with Ritwik Kumar Ghatak (1975)
------------------------
Section 1: His own films

Why do you make films?

Why films? Because I am totally crazy. I can not live without making films. Must not we do something? So I make these films. No other reason really.

When you prepare to make a film and choose subjects, what do you look for and look at?

People. I look at the struggle and misery of contemporary life. And try to say that “to the best of my ability”. My only concern is men and women of my country. I have nothing else. It does not matter whether my countrymen accept me or reject me. My only subject is my men and women. What else have I got?

What should be the primary objective of making films?

The primary objective of making films is to do good to mankind. If you do not do good to humanity, no art is a true work of art. Rabindranath said that art must be faithful to truth first and to beauty secondarily (dipanjan: reference to satyam and sundaram). This truth comes out of an artist’s own perceptions and meditations. Since truth is never everlasting and constant and as this world is always subjective and changing, everyone must arrive at their personal truth with their entire life’s deepest thoughts and understandings. One should accept that truth only after fully realizing it. Art is not a trivial thing.

What is more important to you in filming a story or novel? Literary value or the process of transformation to a different art form?

I do not see any distinction between the two. It’s all about different expressions of human life. Which medium I choose is not significant at all. Love of mankind is the only thing of any importance. The daily grind, mindless drudge work – is this life? If you must love, you must give it your all; love with all your heart. I don’t know if I have been able to do that.

Is there a deep-seated connection between Meghe Dhaka Tara, Subarnarekha and Komol Gandhar? If there is, could you elaborate please?

Of course there is an innate connection. "Meghe Dhaka Tara was completely my… in my subconscious affair. Komol Gandhar was a very conscious affair." My marriage to this woman is very closely tied to it. "And Subarnarekha is a very serious work". I had to work really hard on it, yes psychologically … "a work behind it". Not just physical hard labor, I had to slog very hard mentally to make it work. I don’t know if I was successful, but miyan, the fact of the matter is I slogged.

But the connection?

There is only one connection between these three. And that is the unification of two Bengals. I wanted to unite two Bengals. I love them both miyan… that’s what I am saying and that’s all I am going to say unto the last, until I die. I do not care (about anything)… I do not care about money. "I can fight that out. Ritwik Ghatak can do that out here and in Dhaka". Whoever wants to kick my butt, let them do it. I could not care less.

In most of your films, we can perceive the pain and suffering arising out of the division of Bengal. Has partition been particularly important in determining our current state?

Absolutely. And I have always been extremely against it. Even in my last film (dipanjan:Jukti, Takko Aar Gappo) I think I have attacked it. I am not part of any discussions about political unification. Because I don’t understand it and I don’t need any of it. But cultural unification (I am passionate about) – I have worked in both Bengals. And no one has done it more than me. No one here knows more about Bangladesh than me. The way I have stayed and worked there and what I have seen (dipanjan:reference to shooting Titas Ekti Nadir Naam in Bangladesh) among those bangali boys and girls – especially girls – in Bangladesh, no one else here can match that or has seen that. I will probably go there again after a few days (dipanjan: he never did) . But that’s not the point. The point is – and I have said it in my films – what provoked the strife between two Bengals "is a great betrayal". There is only one Bengal. If we try, we can reunite now on the basis of love and compassion that is always there. "And that has been partitioned completely in a rascal way". This is something very artificial and no one has the right to forgive it. Now historically twenty-five or twenty-seven years have passed. It has already been done , so you can’t help it blah blah. But the point is, culturally Bengalis can not be divided. One culture.

I remember you mentioning once that, in the last shot of Subarnarekha, when Binu’s uncle(mama) was talking to Binu about a new world, he was lying. In that context, you mentioned that we could not suggest new solutions as we were finished. If you really believe that, do you make films only for your own joy? But when we watch your films, we feel otherwise.

Right, right, both are correct. The truth is I am delighted after watching my films. Decoupled with enjoyment, there can be no art. But at the same time you can not forget about doing good to men. How are you going to do any work without love for human beings? You have to love like crazy if you want to create. Yes, that’s the other side of it. There is no contradiction between the two. Why shouldn't I love you while creating art? I don’t see an inherent contradiction.

In the context of Indian film history, all of your films stand out as exceptions. But even among them, Jukti, Takko Aar Gappo stands apart. What do you think?

I don’t have an opinion. This is totally up to others. I wanted to make films and I did it. Now you decide if those are of any value. How do I know? Never question (dipanjan:in the last paragraph of his review of Ajantrik, Rosenbaum touches on artistic intentionality) an artist about his work because “he is always biased”. There is no point in asking him. Like it or hate it, the reactions are your own. Some people will get pissed, some will be delighted. Why should that concern me?

But you have changed form in this film…

Every work of art is distinct. The form comes out of its theme, philosophy and reflections. I picked the form I felt right for its themes. So there is no point in asking about change in forms. Content dictated it.

Was it inevitable for you to portray the role of the protagonist?

Yes, I think so. Because I don’t think I saw anyone in Calcutta who could express the thoughts and words I was trying to communicate through that character. I know pretty much everyone… I mean those who act. None of them could do it. Similarly except Monidi (dipanjan:Tripti Mitra), no one could do the role of the wife. There are lots of actresses, but it’s the truth. Those two are the only serious roles – Monidi’s and mine – and if you are not an old (dipanjan:purono=old/ex?) communist, and if you have not come out of that struggle, it’s not possible for you to do those roles. You can force other actors to act, but that will be fake. I thought of Madhabi, but she could not grasp what I was trying to say. A single expression of Monidi, on the other hand, would always do the trick. It’s because we joined the communist party together and both of us left it around the same time, too. And both of us knew the unfortunate paths we had taken to reach this sad state in Bengal. So, no, I don’t think anyone else could have done it.

My Lenin. We did not get a chance to watch it, isn’t there a way?

That…there are a lot of problems. It’s about…all right…Morarji Desai. My Lenin was cleared by the censor board here and then I took it to Delhi. It was before Congress was divided. So I showed the film and the Polish cultural attaché went berserk. He understands Bangla very well. He was crazy about it and immediately started making plans of sending it to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia. Then I found out that Morarji Desai had sent a letter and Indira told me "Ritwik, this film is banned!" and I said "What nonsense! You must do something! Ridiculous!" Then Haksar sahib who is like a father figure to me – he used to love me immensely – and was the chief secretary then, took it to Morarji. Then this girl – what’s the name, oh yes, Nandini, now she is in Orissa – called me and said "Ritwik, what can I do? You go ahead and do whatever you want." Haksar sahib also came out of his room and started saying "Isi me koi garbar nehi hai, what’s wrong with it?" Then it started to sell in Russia and some other socialist countries wanted to buy it. With that money, I could have bought food for my family for a long period of time. But eventually Morarji did ban it. Anyways, Haksar and Nandini managed to give me about thirty thousand rupees and also a bad name. But at least I would be able to buy some drinks now which will piss my wife off. That’s all. "This is part of life, can’t be helped". I blew some of the money and then I came back, miyan, "fly back to Calcutta". To give a few bucks to my wife and to tell her - now for one month at least, don’t disturb me. "These are occupational hazards".



Name:  s          

IP Address : 108.209.202.160 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:45 AM

Section 1: His own films

Have you started thinking about your next film?

Yes, I have thought a little bit about the subject. About a year and a half ago – or maybe a year, I am not sure, I was in the hospital then – I read in a newspaper that there was a girl named Bishnupriya in a village near Nabadwip. A bunch of wagon-breakers who have recently become neo-Congress – pipe guns etc. – started to chase the girl. Her only fault was that she was the daughter of a poor Brahmin and had no way of leaving the village. And she was beautiful. So the hoodlums – "supposed to be neo-Congress" – started to tease her. Ultimately they chased her into a corner near her house. Then the girl said “ok, let me get inside the house and put on a nice sari” and tried to run away through the back door, but the goons grabbed her, took her to the jungle "and they enjoyed her" – all five of them, in succession. Meanwhile a reporter from the newspaper Satyajug who is also from that village reached there. On hearing him coming, they poured kerosene on the girl’s body and finally killed her by setting her on fire. I will make a film on this story. I have instructed Lokesh Ghatak to write a script. This is a fact and has been published in newspapers – Satyajug did a big story on this.

Will there be a connection to Bishnupriya, the historical character?

Yes, naturally. Sri Chaitanya’s first wife was Lakshmipriya who died from a snake bite. Then he married her younger sister and only after that he became Sri Chaitanya Deb. And as you know, he did not have any parallel – there was no one anywhere near his stature in fifteenth-century Bengal. His second wife’s name was Bishnupriya. "And as luck would have it", another Bishnupriya from the same village gets murdered. No matter which village you go to, you can hear the folk song – "Sachi Mata go, aami juge juge hoi janomo dukhini". You will hear this in any village in Bengal. There will be a lot of cross references. I have given just a brief sketch to Lokesh, but he does not have all the details yet. You see, Naba Nyay had just been born in Bengal and Nabadwip was full of brilliant intellectuals. Not one, but in hundreds. All of them were highly educated and brilliant scholars. They used to sit by the river and then the debates and discussions would start to flow. Nimai Sannyasi was one of them. Smarta Raghu Mani was the last and the greatest smarto pandit – he had the last work on Smriti. I will inter-cut all of these – today’s life and that life – and put them side by side. We will have to write it well. Nyay, Naba Nyay – a huge contribution, only from Bengal. And it will touch on whatever is going on in contemporary India. That’s it. No point in talking more about it.

Have you ever thought of making films out of stories written by Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay and Manik Bandopadhyay?

I really want to film Chihna(dipanjan: a short story by Manik Bandopadhyay). Only if I can raise some money, because you know you need these businessmen. No one remembers Chihna any more, no one. I also want to do Putul Nacher Itikatha. I badly wanted to do Bibhuti babu’s Aranyak as well when it was being published in the periodical Prabasi, but someone else has already done it. And his Jatrabadal. Have you read it? It is a terrific story. I don’t know if I will ever be able to do it because these businessmen are the intermediaries and they always create problems. They will never get it.

Rabindranath?

I had finished a script on Rabi babu’s Chaturanga and then I started talking to producers. I got lucky and someone agreed to finance it as well – "one of the highest gentlemen in the film line". Bishnu Dey, the poet, settled everything for me because that man was a student of Bishnu Dey -- Hemen Ganguly. But ultimately I could not do it. I really really like Chaturanga. Almost all of Rabibabu’s novels are pretty horrible – I mean very affected, right? – but in Chaturanga, he really cracked it. Incredible. There are only four real Bangla novels and it is one of them. Chaturanga’s Jyatthamashai, Sribilas, Damini – unbelievable. So I started writing and the script was ready and then all of a sudden Hemenbabu dropped dead. What can we do?

What are the other three?

You mean in Bangla? Manikbabu’s Putul Nacher Itikatha, Rabibabu’s Chaturanga, Bankim Chandra’s Rajsingha – these are the true great novels -- real deal.

The fourth one?

Oh, Tarashankarda’s – another dead fellow – Ganadebata. That’s it. There is no other novel in Bangla literature. Everything else is crap – publishers still sell those and it all seems to be fine, but crap really. Stuff that women read after sending off their husbands to work or to the market. Just before their afternoon siestas, they take a pillow and those novels and then start to drowse off. That’s what we write nowadays and that’s what they are good for (laughing). Aranyak did not quite reach the level of those four. Too much forth. Great writing no doubt, but has an overflow of emotion. Those four are precise. Just perfect. From a writer’s perspective, there is nothing above them.

Do you want to talk a little about your filmmaking experiences – events that you cherished or hated?

There are tons of events and incidents like that. There is no point in talking about all that though. If you are working, those problems will always be there. What can I say about it? People who were with me and around me, they will talk about it. The final word is – to summarize – somehow I have survived. I survived (shouting).

Section 2: Inspirations

In the art of filmmaking, who have influenced or inspired you? And how those inspirations or influences have worked their way into your art?

It’s not just me, anyone in the world who is a serious artist, who has done any serious work in Bengal or elsewhere, anyone whose name you have heard -- each and every one of them is inspired by one individual and his name is Sergei Eisentein. We wouldn’t know “f” of filmmaking if Eisenstein were not there before us. He is our father. Godfather. When we were young, his writings, theses, and his films made us go nuts. And those were not easily available back then. We had to hide them and import them very carefully. This man Eisenstein -- and you can ask Satyajit Ray, too, and "he will admit that he is the father of us". From him, we learned how to cut – editing is the key to filmmaking. Then there is Pudovkin. He was here in 1949 and I was fortunate enough to meet him. Party instructed me to follow him, spend time with him and learn from him. Pudovkin told me something that is the basis of all of my education. He said: “films are not made, filmmaking does not make any sense – a film is built”. Brick by brick, exactly like building a house. That’s how you build films, by cutting one shot after another. It is built, not made. These two individuals and then there is Carl Dreyer. I watched his films in Pune long time ago. The Passion of Joan of Arc. I totally lost myself after watching that film. And there is another person who I must admit to be one of my gurus. Luis Buñuel. They are my true gurus. Oh, and Mizoguchi. After watching Ugetsu Monogatari, I was “staggered”, I mean I went completely crazy. That’s what a real film is! Everything I know about films, I have learned from these people.

Will you talk about a few of the greatest films that you have watched?

The greatest film – you want me to name it? Battleship Potemkin. There has not been a film which can top that. None. The Odessa Steps scene – no one will ever be able to shoot anything greater than that. Film is all about editing. Cutting, editing. The scissors are the films – when to throw away, after exactly how many frames. The whole film depends on that. No one has created anything greater than Battleship Potemkin.

Section 3: Challenges in Filmmaking and Film Criticism

In your experience, what has been the most difficult aspect of filmmaking and why?

In my experience, there is only one difficult aspect of filmmaking. Only one and nothing else. And that is financing. Raising money and managing it are the biggest challenges. After that, my workers, my technicians and my artists will give their lives to do one great work of art. But getting the money and managing it is the only hurdle. Nothing else.

Why is it so hard?

Our social structure, what else. If I must talk about it, I will have to start talking about Marxism. These rogues and bastards, they are hoarding all the cash and are taking part in all sorts of vulgarity and mischief. They are the real troublemakers. If we could switch off these black marketers, that would solve it. You see for yourself, eleven thousand crore "white" money is circulating in our country and there are thirty-three thousand crore rupees in the black market – almost the entire cash flow of our country is taking place in the black market.

In the context of film production?

No, I am not talking about just films –- our entire society, economy have been taken over by these black marketers and their money "from all sides". And even the government of India has admitted that. Today the true worth of one rupee, after a continuous decline, has fallen to -- and Chavan admitted it -- thirty-six paise. In reality, it is just twenty-five paise. The value of one rupee is twenty-five paise. People can’t eat because of inflation. This famine has completely exposed the entire system. What can I say? Films are nothing special. They are just a small piece in the whole puzzle.

In filming great literature, what kind of difficulties does an artist face?

Well, there has not been a whole lot of great literature in this country. If you want to make films out of whatever little there is, you must keep one thing in mind. Literature is one form of art and film is another. So when you are making a script out of literature, you can not just dumbly follow it. That’s not right. A film is primarily visual – a visual art. This has to be kept in mind. Sound is secondary. Yes, it is important, too. It can help to move the images forward. Literature on the other hand is meant for reading. When you are reading a great work of literature, you feel great joy -- something that is born out of your refined taste for words. But "film is a performing art". It is about seeing, hearing. There is a hell and heaven difference between the two. So you must change. If the writers get mad because of that – well, I have nothing to say. But the fact is they must realize that to translate from one medium to another and to make it work, you must make changes.

Do you think the gulf that we observe between artistic excellence and its comprehensibility to an average moviegoer is desirable as a whole?

No, no. There is no room for such silly questions.

Why do you say so? In spite of everything, you are doing some good work. But a majority of people are not getting it. In this situation, how can we try to bridge this gulf and make the communication happen? Shouldn’t we think about that – I mean we want the audience to start thinking and reflecting…

Primarily, I could not care less. First, I do not live my life based on who accepts my work and who does not. And secondly, these questions are worthless. Please ask sensible questions only.

What do you think about the role of a critic in understanding films? And here how the critics are…

The role of a critic is very important -- extremely important. Who is a critic? He is the bridge between a creative artist and audience. But we don’t have critics like that in our country. One or two that we had are selling out, too. Since the commercial papers and magazines have bought them out, they do not dare to write the truth any more. They have to obey orders all the time. And I can’t convince you how valuable criticism is. I won’t even try. You see, when George Bernard Shaw started to criticize English plays – he was not a playwright yet – the entire city of London was turned on its head. That is true writing! Here no one dares to write. There were a few who could do it. I know of a couple. Saroj Sengupta -- he used to write seriously. He was kicked out. And there is this other guy -- what’s his name, he’s in Anandabazar…

Jyotirmoy?

No, no, no.

N.K.G?

No, no, not N.K.G. Ah, that other guy. “Just now I am missing the name”. I will let you know if it comes back. "These are the only two critics". And Shyamlal who is now the editor of Times of India. He used to be a film critic. Then they moved him and made him an editor. He got a Padmashree or something like that this year. So these are the facts. In this country, no one respects critics. A few good men who want to do honest serious work and they are removed very fast. And what’s the point in talking about the rest? To criticize films, one must understand the medium first. Different aspects of films and the technical details need to be understood, right? Only they themselves can say how much of the process they really get. I am not going to comment on that. “I am not going to get involved in any trouble. But the point is that, I have understood this”. Ah!. That gentleman, I can’t recall the name. He is the best in India… from Anandabazar. Now he is with Desh and they don’t let him write anything.

Sebabrata?

No, no, not Sebabrata. Very strange! The way I miss certain names from time to time!

How important a medium film is in the context of cultural movements?

I think film is an extremely important medium. But where are we using it in such a way? You all know what’s going on. There is no point in discussing all this. In this country, film has become the crassest instrument of cheap entertainment. So, I am quite worried about future of films in this country. I have no idea what will happen in the future though.

As an industry, film is capital-intensive. So how much dissident can it really be?

Totally and absolutely. But it all depends on who are building the film. If an artist is fearless and not spineless, he or she can do anything. In their films, they can capture the struggles and plight of the entire universe. But what can we do if they don’t? And usually they don’t. That’s why our films have become so ridiculous.



Name:  s          

IP Address : 108.209.202.160 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:47 AM

Section 3: Memories of Bimal Roy

In the early stage of your film career, you were involved with Bombay film industry. Would you like to talk about that experience a little bit?

Which aspects of the industry?

Specifically, we want to know about the experiences of working with Bimal Roy.

To talk about Bimal Roy, I must start by saying that that I worship him. How great a filmmaker he was is not that important to me. To me, the most significant part is his greatness as a human being. You see, my cousin (Rangada) Sudhish Ghatak brought him here from Dhaka as a third assistant. At that time I was a school student and knew next to nothing about films. Then Bimalda used to carry me and take me to New Theatres. Back then you could not get the doors opened easily and the gatekeepers were really strict about not letting anyone go near the sets. Not that it has changed much. Anyways, yes, I have worked with Bimalda. Then N.T. slowly fell apart. After that, Bimalda directed Tathapi at Bharatlakkhmi and I became his chief assistant. Bedeni was before that. Even before that, Bimalda moved out of his role as a cinematographer and became a director in Udayer Pathey which as you know, became sort of a cult hit. Bimalda groomed (dipanjan:he mentored Hrishikesh Mukherjee as well) me and used to love me immensely. It is up to you to discuss and criticize his work, but I know what kind of a person he was. Anjangarh after that etc. I used to travel around with Bimalda and worked extremely hard. That's all. He was a family friend, so what more can I say about him? Whatever I say will be "biased". To speak about him is to speak about our family, our own history.

How did Udayer Pathey help in turning contemporary Bengali film scene around?

If I must criticize, then...well...with Udayer Pathey, Bimalda extracted Bengali film out of the sinking depth it used to languish in. But if you listen to the dialogs today, they will sound ridiculous and sub-standard. That was done by Jyotirmoy who embellished the language to such an extent that it does not sound real. Bimalda could have done much better, for example, "with a small needle"...( chhoto chhNucher dwara)

"How can we fight against a monster such as poverty?" (daridryer moto doityo)

Yes, all that "rubbish". Absolutely rubbish. That was done by Jyotirmoy "rascal" who edited the script and added all the flourishes.

Why are you calling names?

(laughing) Miyaan, they are all my friends. They are all truly deprived folks.

Section 4: Indian films: motley topics

Could you talk a little bit about the trends and directions of Indian films during the long gap between Subarnarekha and Jukti Takko Gappo?

I can not do that. I do not watch (a lot of Indian) films. Whatever little I can say -- and it is gradually becoming more and more constrained and limited -- I have tried to do that in Jukti Takko Gappo. I do not have anything more to add.

Is there meaningful protest in contemporary Indian films?

First of all, it is not possible for me to say whether any Indian film has meaningful protest in it or not. As I said, I do not watch (a lot of) Indian films. And whatever little I hear from others, I think there is no protest at all. They want to take people in a completely different direction. I would request you to read Münsterberg -- I don't know if you have read his work -- Thoughts on Film. Nothing else compares with his work which supports "the dream factor" and has the last word on it -- the ultimate deception. No one here probably reads these books, but I do. I have to. I don't think anyone in our country has the courage to talk about protest. Only Mrinal Sen has tried a little, but I do not think any of his works has penetrated deep enough either. The primary objective of films -- not only just films, of any art -- is to portray contemporary misery and struggles of our countrymen. I don't know how much of that Mrinal has been able to express. Although I have no right to talk about this because all of them are my friends. But the fact remains that I can not name a single artist who has been able to do this in a significant way. I myself have not worked in a long time, so I don't think I should say any more than this.

In your opinion, what should be the principle behind FFC's loan schemes? Should new directors receive it, or should the veterans who have already done some good work be preferred?

I think there is a need for combining both. We must support the new kids and FFC must do whatever they can. "That is one part". But the older directors who want to do serious work need support as well. All of them have the same goal, so we can not discard any of them.

How is the current state of production in India hurting our films?

Production and distribution are not hurting us as much as exhibition is. You must become more aware about the film exhibition process. You must try to understand how filthy and broken the exhibition trade is in our country. I have talked about it a lot and tried to convince everyone starting from businessmen to bureaucrats. We need to manage the exhibition system better. You would not believe how depraved and crooked these people are and there is no point in talking about my experiences because nothing will come out of it. There are problems in distribution business too, but the situation is not as bad as the exhibition trade. They are murderers -- art and this and that in the end do not matter at all -- and they are destroying everything in the entire country.

Are you optimistic about the current state of Bengali films, from an artistic perspective?

That is a very difficult question. I really can not answer this in a direct manner. From what I know about Bengali films, I am positive that there are a lot of young boys and girls who want to work seriously. But no one will give them any work, or will pay them anything for their work. And unfortunately, we are in such a business that you need lakhs of rupees to do anything. We (the old-timers) can squeeze by somehow, by manipulating and scheming. "Somehow or other we manage". "But these kids" -- they can not. Do you get it? (laughing). I do not know who among them will emerge successfully out of this, but I do have a lot of hope because I have a natural confidence in future. I very strongly believe that one or more of these kids will do better work than me, but no one gives them a chance. They do not make enough to eat well. Come with me to the studio para (neighborhood) and you will see how deprived these kids are. I do not know how they will make films. But if one of them can manage to do it, they will go way past us and beat us all. All of us -- myself, Satyajit, Mrinal Sen -- will lose and I want to lose. I want them to do it.

Generally speaking, the diversity we see in foreign films is sadly absent in our films. What do you think about it?

I do not think there is a whole lot of difference between our films and their films, in general. But Mizoguchi, Ozu, Tarkovsky, Kakoyannis -- their films make me crazy. Leopoldo Torre Nilsson and Dreyer make me go nuts. I do not want to mention Kurosawa because I think he has become a sell-out now. Among the Italian directors, I respect Antonioni, Fellini especially, Visconti and Rossellini the most. But among all the living directors, Luis Buñuel is my greatest guru.

There were a few worthy fellows in Russia. Kozintsev has done some immortal work. Hamlet - can you believe it? And the last one I saw -- Tarkovsky's Ivan's Childhood -- drove me crazy. The face of the mother in the first scene -- I will never be able to forget that. His use of camera has made me think a lot. I have seen very few things as beautiful as his judicious use of slow motion.

I could say a lot more, but not in such a short time. In my whole goddamn life, I will never forget the scene in Buñuel's Viridiana where he satirizes Last Supper. A girl, the lead character, brings a bunch of rogues home and hosts a supper. All of a sudden, he fuses it together with the framing of Da Vinci's Last Supper and in a single shot, makes it crystal clear that the whole Roman Catholic dogma is bogus. "This is Buñuel". I do not think there is a greater artist living at present.

How much of the potential of applying music to Indian films has been realized, in your opinion?

The first film where the use of music moved me was Shantaram's Shakuntala (music by Vasant Desai) and then Kadambari (music by Hari Prasanna Das). Among Bengali films, I liked quite a few of Debakibabu's films. I enjoyed Pather Panchali's music a lot, but the theme music Ravi Shankar copied from a black American folk song named Swan's River. Other than that, his work in that film was excellent.

I do not watch a whole lot of Bengali and Hindi films, so I do not know what is currently happening and talking about my own films is impudent, of course. Still among my own films, the one which gave me most pleasure from a musical perspective is Komol Gandhar. Jyotirindra Moitra, my music director, soulfully used Bengal's - both West and East Bengal's -- classical and folk music. His work was so beautiful that I can watch this film with my eyes closed.

Could you say a few words about Pramathesh Barua's contribution to Bengali films?

Pramathesh opened Barua-Studio in 1928. Then he started New Theatres along with Mr. B.N.Sircar and started making films -- one after another. Some of them were absolutely brilliant in the context of his time. A few of his films were hits, a few bombed big time and that is inevitable in any artist's career. His greatest film is Grihadaha. I remember that on the third day of exhibition at Chitra theatre, the spectators tore the screen down. At that day and age, the montage he created to depict Achala's transition from town to village is incredible. He was the first in India to introduce the use of subjective camera. You will notice that when you watch Uttarayan. No one remembers these films any more. Everyone just thinks of his cheap sentimental films such as Mukti and Debdas. Now some pundits ridicule him by calling him Prince P.C. Barua. They should know better. In those days of closed-mindedness, he at least tried to do something different. We can never glorify ourselves by denying and making fun of our predecessors.


Name:  s          

IP Address : 108.209.202.160 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:48 AM

Section 5: Documentary Films

Could you share some of your thoughts on documentary films?

Generally speaking, documentary films have followed two primary trends. First influence is Robert Flaherty's work especially his portrayal of Eskimo life in Nanook of the North, and the second one is London's Film Centre's movement led by John Grierson. The entire world came to realize the power and potential of documentary films because of those two individuals. On one hand, you have Flaherty's Moana, Louisiana Story and Elephant Boy, and on the other British Film Board's Night Mail and Song of Ceylon. The great modern documentary directors who followed their footsteps also deserve our deepest respect.

Also what Leni Riefenstahl accomplished during Hitler's era is remarkable and indeed hard to match. Obviously we find her politics to be extremely repugnant, but her aesthetic abilities can not be denied. In spite of Hitler's mischiefs in 1936 during Berlin Olympics, the work she did with her team of 36 cameramen is outstanding and I do not think any other documentary filmmaker who has made a film of that scale in such an organized manner.

Have you followed any specific principles of making documentary films?

For me, the principle came out of a combination of Flaherty and Grierson's influences -- along the lines of what Basil Wright amazingly displayed in Song of Ceylon and Night Mail. I worship Wright.

You see, in order to shoot documentaries, you need a much stronger love for people. You can not accomplish anything otherwise. Most of you consider me to be a director of fictional feature films, but please analyze carefully and ask yourself the question whether I have ever done anything except expressing love for my people. Have any of my films been shot inside a studio?

To me, there is no difference between my features and my documentaries. I do not consider documentary films to be a separate art form -- they are documents of human life. If you strongly love your people, you can hardly distinguish between documentaries and features. I do not know a whole lot about documentary films even though I have made quite a few as I made those to make a living. I do not think I have the right attitude for making documentary films and I consider almost all of them to be failures. So it will be impudent to say anything more on this.

We immensely enjoyed your documentary Puruliar Chhau and we also noticed its very significant role in Jukti, Takko, Gappo. What lies behind your strong interest in Chhau dance form?

Chhau is significant because it expresses the depth and richness of Purulia's life. If you visit Purulia, the poorest district of West Bengal, and go inside its villages, you would see how deeply the villagers there love their art. When I mixed with them, I totally fell in love. On observing how passionately they love the dance form and how attentively they create the dance masks, I was completely stunned. My love for them made me crazy. I have worked there three times. The first documentary I made was for West Bengal government. After that, when Philip Pierrot came from Paris, I made another documentary in color for him and finally, I had to work really hard on this film (dipanjan:Jukti,Takko, aar Gappo's Chhau sequence).

The fact is there is always a vision of mother-image lurking in my head. One of my friends once told me -- "you have been devoured by the mother (archetype)". That is true -- I am always obsessed with the mother. If you notice carefully, raison d'être of the coda of the Chhau sequence is the mother complex.

Section 6: East Bengal (Bangladesh)

Please tell us about your experiences of shooting in Bangladesh.

Good Heavens! If you want me to talk about shooting in Bangladesh, I will have to turn into a diplomat. It involves the political relation between the two countries and that is extremely "touchy". Specifically, if I say something bad about them, that will really hurt them and make the relationship even worse than what it is now. So I don't really want to talk about it. I can talk about "the good points" about Bangladesh and "not the bad points". The young actors and actresses there are simply incredible -- their vitality and energy are so intense as if they could die for you. Most of the technicians will work like crazy for you as well. In general, Bangladesh's people are extremely emotional and once they accept someone as their own, they will do anything for him or her. And if they do not like you, they will completely reject you. There is no point in talking about the equipments -- the situation is completely hopeless. Some of the stuff they have over there are exceptionally good and you won't find them in Calcutta, Bombay or Pune (dipanjan: Pune refers to FTII where, for a brief period, Ritwik was a visiting professor and vice-principal). However, the equipments have been so carelessly maintained that most of them are completely useless now and I had a really really hard time in fixing them. I turned into a mechanic -- what else could I do?

Was it because of a lack of knowledge or intentional?

Primarily a lack of knowledge. Also the tendency for taking bribes -- corruption, in general -- and finally complete sloppiness and carelessness. For example, one day we went to shoot at a place about 80 km from Dhaka. We prepared the sets and everything was ready to go. All of a sudden, one of my cameramen tells me -- "dada, this camera is not working; the shutter plate is not moving and I don't know what's wrong". Wasn't it the responsibility of the care-taker to test the camera at studio before getting it and all of us there? Anyways all the crew was there and we were spending so much money, so I had to do something. I finally opened the camera up and found that one pin inside the camera was tilted which was blocking the shutter-plate. I somehow fixed the pin and started shooting. Another day, at a place around 30 miles from Dhaka, we were shooting and I wanted 180 degrees, but the camera was stuck at 120. As you know, there are different types of cameras -- Arriflex type twos have variable shutters and the type ones have fixed shutters. So this cameraman comes to me and says -- "Dada, do you want to variate it? You can't do it; this is 120 with a fixed shutter". I said -- "Are you kidding? This is a type 2b, the best camera." So I open it up to see that it is completely "jammed" and then "I had to correct, then shoot". Problems like this! And the sound system? Horrible. Incredibly bad -- it falls apart as soon as you touch it. They have not taken proper care of anything. Anyways the people were fantastic. So this is the situation in Dhaka.

What is your reaction on MuktiJuddha -- the freedom struggle?

I was very excited about it. But now it seems exactly the opposite (of what I had expected) has happened. I don't think anyone else here has as much connection with Bangladesh as I have and that is mainly because I personally know them really well and have been close to so many of them. Most of those muktijoddhaa(freedom fighter) boys have turned into hooligans -- typical hooligans. Every house is full of sten guns, LMGs and revolvers. They have completely changed. Calcutta's newspapers do not publish these stories, but I go there often and I know this. The boys I used to love so much have become this. And the "good elements" among them are very frustrated -- "is this our freedom, is this what we fought for? did thirty lakh fighters die for this?" During the freedom struggle, there was so much excitement and optimism in the air when they fought against the Pak army. I was there and used to shoot in the middle of all that. And I go there now as well and see these two division -- on one hand, you have the ruffians and the hooligans, and on the other an absolute frustration and dejection.

Was the fact that you ended up shooting Titas while you were in Bangladesh just a coincidence?

No, not a coincidence at all. Bangladesh, as you know, is a riverine country and there are only two good Bengali novels on those rivers -- Manik Bandopadhyay's Padma Nadir Majhi and Adwaita Mallabarman's Titas Ekti Nadir Naam. The crux of the matter is Manikbabu's writing, as you know, is extremely sharp and precise. There is nothing one can say about him -- his writing is so restrained and he can express so much with so few words. However, he observes fishermen and their life from the perspective of a bhadrolok(middle-class gentleman). He can never really get into ... something does not just quite fit. Adwaita Mallabarman, on the other hand, is a Malo - a fisherman. He blah-blahs quite a bit -- there is a lot of redundancy -- but he has an insider's view because he is one of their own and his home is in that Gokarna village where I shot the film. He is the only graduate from that village -- among the Malos. So his writing on the joys and sorrows, the ups and downs of their lives penetrate a different depth altogether. One had to edit it significantly and I probably managed to do it, though I am not quite sure. I was very moved when I read Titas as it was first published around the same time when Adwaita died from TB. Since then I have been thinking about making a film out of it, but of course I could not enter Bangladesh when Ayub Khan was ruling it. As a communist, I had no hope of getting a visa and so I could not do it. At that time, a lot of people used to ask me to shoot the film here in West Bengal and that I could not accept. The river, the land, the boats and the faces -- you can not get them on this side of the border. So I have been thinking about Titas for a long time, since the beginning. My sister now lives in Kumilla, my twin sister. I was in Bangladesh as a state-guest in 1972, 21st February (dipanjan:bhasha dibas). Satyajit was with me as well. One day when I was at my sister's place, at the end of a cultural program, one young Muslim boy approached me and asked me why I was not filming Titas. And right there, I said yes and made up my mind. So it was not a coincidence; I have been thinking about it for a long time and when the opportunity came, I just grabbed it.

Section 7: Political Past, IPTA

Now I would like to ask you a few questions about your personal life. When and how did Marxism and politics start to attract you?

I started getting inclined to RSP when I was in the first year undergrad. Immediately after that, IPTA started to strongly influence me and those two events led me to study Marxism. Studying Marxist literature and writing on it went hand in hand with theatre acting -- around 1944-45, although I am not too sure about the exact dates now.

So you have been a part of IPTA since then?

Yes, I have been involved with IPTA since then. I was.

Around what time did you become part of the managing committee?

That was in 1948. I became the secretary in 1948 and quit in 1953.

Was that before the party was banned?

Yes, just a little before the ban.

Which of your plays were staged during those IPTA days? And who directed them?

I directed all of them. Among the plays, Jwala, Dalil -- Dalil was the first -- Officer and Bhanga Bandar are the only four I can recall at this moment.

sNaako?

Oh yes, sNaako. There are a few more, but I can not recall.

Do you want to say something about what moved you to write Jwala and Dalil?

Dalil? I came to Calcutta from Rajshahi in 1948. Well... let's not get into all that (dipanjan:partition). The crux of the matter is I was forced to come to Calcutta and bring my mother with me. And then I had to watch the plight of the "refugees". Well, I can not stand those words -- I squirm whenever I hear words such as "refugee", "asylum-seeker" . "Most...afffair". Anyways, so I wrote Dalil. Then I was the secretary of IPTA and also the director of Central Squad. Writing plays as well as directing and acting in them was a full-time job for me. One day P.C. Joshi -- he was in Allahabad then -- wrote a letter to me. Back then I used to live with my brother (Sejda) on Harish Mukherjee street. That was 1951 and there used to be a newspaper named "Indian Way" edited by P.C. Joshi. As you know, he was the general secretary (of CPI) prior to that and when B.T. Ranadive kicked him out, things became really bad for me and my wife. Anyways...damnit. There is no point in discussing all that -- kids of today do not know any of this and will not understand. So in that letter, PCJ told me to "take over the charge of Bengal" as a correspondent. Back then there was a big suicide wave (among the refugees) going on in Calcutta and I reported a series titled "Suicide Wave in Calcutta" on that sequence of thirty-one suicides. It became quite famous after it was published, but journalism and reporting did not quite satisfy me as I could not express my anger and frustration strongly enough -- I had not encroached films yet. So out of those characters in my report, I selected six and wrote the play Jwala which "is a documentary". I wrote the play and acted in it as well. I worked together with a lot of promising young boys and girls. It was on Calcutta at that time... now it is even more horrible, a complete nightmare. "At that time it was more or less a much better city".

Who else acted with you in Jwala?

Kali Banerjee, Gita Dey, Mamtaj, and there was another girl named Mamata...

Chattopadhyay?

Yes and there was another girl. And Gyanesh etc...

Wasn't Bijanbabu part of it then?

No, he was not. We are talking about 1951-52. After that I did not act for a while as well. And a long time after that one day Tiny Chatterjee who is now a director-general in All India Radio, got hold of me. I did direct Jwala for him, but did not participate -- my voice is not in it. Then my nephew Phalgu did it in Hindi for Patna radio. Phanishwar Renu who recently won the Rabindra award did the translation. His wife is a Bengali and he is from Munger as well, so he is almost a Bengali and knows the language well. Phanishwar and my nephew are neighbors and they have a theatre group. That translation was broadcast from Delhi radio as well. Anyways... let's not talk about it. Now it is all quite acceptable, back then "it was not taken in". It was very difficult to accept it, now things have become much more...

Long before Jwala, you once mentioned that you wanted to do Trishna?

Don't bug me, my dear. I am a drunk, let me just keep drinking.

Why are you not writing plays any more?

I don't want to. Look, I have no intention to write.

Well then, was your departure from IPTA voluntary?

Yes, absolutely.

Today (dipanjan:reference to Indian emergency 1975-77) we strongly feel the need for organizations such as IPTA and anti-fascist writers' guild. In spite of that need, similar organizations are not coming up...

What can I say? When the anti-fascist movement started, there was a strong group named PWA (progressive writers' association) and IPTA was born under the auspices of PWA. We slowly became regulars in both of those organizations which shared the same address -- 46, Dharmatala Street. We used to work together and back then it was extremely important for us to do so. I agree that we need similar organizations today. I strongly feel that because I am more or less well-connected to Delhi and I do see that the power structure there is again shaping up in a very fascist way. But I do not know the mindset of today's youth; I do not know how principled they are. If there are young boys and girls like that, then yes, I am absolutely sure they should do something similar especially if you look at what CIA etc. are doing in Delhi these days. I do not want to take any names -- and there are quite a few famous and powerful people who are involved in all this -- but I do know each and every one of them. So yes, there is no doubt that there is an urgent need for similar movements, but unfortunately except the Naxalites, today's youth do not seem to care much.

Aren't you becoming a little too sympathetic towards them?

To whom?

Naxalites?

Well, I am bound to be a little sympathetic.

Isn't that out of the order?

No, why so? I totally disagree with their politics, opinions and ideology, but their honesty? I can't help but respect that. I don't see anyone else. These young boys and girls -- I agree that they are completely misguided which I have shown in my film (dipanjan:Jukti, Takko aar Gappo) -- and their integrity have no parallel. They do not want anything for themselves. Shouldn't I respect that? I must.

Section 8: An artist's social and political responsibility

Usually artists are especially individualistic -- what do you think is the reason behind that?

An artist becoming extremely individualistic is probably not appropriate for this day and age. They probably need to become a little more ... conscious socially. But I don't quite get why today's artists get so angry and mad. I do not quite get it from my perspective. There is a question of being democratic and I do not think they are trying to be. I am roaming round the entire country and I notice these boys and girls and somehow on this point, they are not quite... etc.

Have you ever considered yourself to be individualistic?

Me? I have never even questioned it. I am individualistic, from the start to end. My individualism is a fact, but that should not be held against me or my work. "I am continuously individualistic". But miyaan, what does that have to do with anything? "Life is like that!" I have been part of a lot of trouble and mischief, but I have never ever harmed anyone. Don't you get it, miyaan?

How deeply an artist should be embedded into politics?

It is not a question merely for artists. In this society -- in this class-based society -- every individual must be completely saturated with politics. Not just artists, everyone. But that does not mean an artist should become a slogan monger. You can not become an artist with cheap slogans; an artist must work deep inside your senses and sensibilities. Politicians operate at a superficial level -- slogans, shouting, loud protests etc. -- but I do not think art survives when artists start doing the same.

Do you think artists have social responsibilities?

Absolutely. Anyone who avoids or claims to avoid social responsibility is also fulfilling some social responsibility by helping out the upper-class and ruling bastards. Everyone is definitely fulfilling some social responsibility.

So from this perspective, what is the primary responsibility of artists of our country?

To serve the men and women of our country. Moreover, the primary and the final responsibilities are exactly the same -- loving people, serving them and talking for them -- and that must be expressed in an artistic manner. That's all, but not slogan-mongering.

It is being observed that some artists are getting completely isolated from politics. What is behind that, or ...

They are not getting isolated from politics. I have already answered this. They are all taking a side, but are posing as -- "I am not committed". "One can not be non-committed. You are either for this or for that." So none of them are apolitical, they are just being deceptive and are harming people.

Thirty years ago, this commitment used to be much stronger among artists. It has weakened significantly since then and is becoming almost non-existent. What is your reaction?

I do have a strong reaction. They have been behaving in this way only because there is a growing tendency of finding short-cuts to becoming famous and successful. We were talking about this on our way here, right? In his essay on Shakuntala, Rabindranath while describing Kalidasa's era said -- "how time has somehow become lowly and wretched since then" -- and it is becoming progressively worse. In a way, our moral sense is decaying and everyone is becoming more irresponsible. These are symptoms of a decay leading to an eventual collapse. I think it is going to collapse completely, but at the same time I am positive that something new and strong will emerge out of that process. Maybe during my son's time or maybe during my grandson's. I do not think anything will happen in our lifetime. So you do not really need to group artists separately -- they are part of the whole process.

How much of the responsibility of this decay lies with the leftist political leaders?

They bear complete responsibility, but none of them is on the left anymore. All of them have moved to the right. So I am not sure who you are referring to as leftist political leaders. They do not even exist. The leaders' only concerns are to pocket more money for themselves and their cronies and how to get their names and pictures published on newspapers. No one cares about Indian people. So how do I even assign responsibilities to those leaders? As I said before, something might emerge out of some of the Naxalite kids...

Do you think in the recent past, say within last twenty years, there have been some mistakes made on the part of communist party and its leadership on the cultural front -- mistakes which led to this decay in commitment?

Of course, there have been huge mistakes as a result of which I quit the party. P.C. Joshi might have had a lot of faults, but he had a deep understanding of these issues. And he used to complaint to each comrade while these mistakes were being made. My wife Lakkhmi was a comrade and was the secretary of Shilong committee long long time ago. PCJ should have forgotten that, but that bastard -- he is almost dying -- wrote a letter to her a few days ago. Whenever I go to Delhi, he would invite me to his house. And it is not just for me or Lakkhmi, he would enquire individually about each and every comrade. He is the man who destroyed Gandhi in Allahabad conference. "Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was completely finished up by P.C. Joshi.". And that man was kicked out of the party by a clique -- I am not going to name the comrades -- of certain individuals. That was in 1948 August at Wellington Conference which was held at Wellington Square and named "Second Congress". The party leaders have switched off their responsibilities from then on and obviously there is no point in discussing how much they have screwed up.



Name:  s          

IP Address : 108.209.202.160 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:50 AM

Section 8: An artist's social and political responsibility

We are going through this nightmare (dipanjan:reference to emergency) now, but we are not really protesting it or standing up against it. What do you think?

What can I say? The situation is terrible and you do not even know the half of it. I have seen it all first hand -- too many times -- and I have all the contacts. But what can I do against it? I tried to do whatever little I could in different ways. I am not a politician, so I can not really mobilize people or organize anything. What I can do is not going to be of any use -- these problems can not be solved by art.

How do you think we can resist the spread of decadent culture? (apasanskriti)

First of all, I find the word apasanskriti absolutely detestable (dipanjan:typical usage of this Bengali word without an exact English equivalent implicates hedonism, in general, and the implied value judgment is not too far from moral policing). You can not really blame today's misguided youth individually for their nefarious activities. The whole society has been collapsing and now has reached such a stage that none of us knows how to stem the rot. You have to get to the root which is the economic reality of our class-based society. Young men and women are not finding any jobs -- there are seventy thousand unemployed engineering graduates in Calcutta alone -- and they have nothing else to do. So these boys are turning into hooligans and taking part in criminal activities -- what else can you expect? Moreover, the family system is breaking down. In the past, there used to be love or respect or something akin to that for one's parents. Now you can clearly see that those relations are decaying and that is part of the total collapse -- all humane relationships are getting wiped out. And this is how a society falls apart. So to do something against this at this point... well we can try and say what we should, but I do not think that is going to help much.

Can we not start a proletariat cultural movement similar to what IPTA started?

If you can put together a group of young boys and girls, it might be possible. Why not? But you need fresh blood - all of us have become very old and we are not that capable any more.

Somewhat related to this, in Jukti, Takko, aar Gappo, there is a sequence where you said "Independence of 1947! Pooh!". What is the significance of this line?

The significance lies in the fact that, by 1947, the British leaders were in a soup. They were in big big trouble. I am not sure how much you know, but I know exactly what happened. First of all, their whole economy collapsed because of war expenditures. Without the Americans, they would have been finished, "all those heroes" were finished -- Churchill et al. Then on the other side, they had to deal with the Subhash Bose situation which led to an intense uprising in entire country. I used to roam around the country back then. Even if I leave Bangladesh-I-mean-West-Bengal-I-mean-Bengal aside, the rest of the country especially Madhya Pradesh -- and I was in Madhya Pradesh back then, in Raipur and Nagpur -- was trembling with excitement. What Subhashbabu finally managed to accomplish is a different issue, but the reaction he generated among Indians, common men and women of India, was intense. They were really really mad at that time and then came the 42 Quit India movement. After that, the naval mutiny in Bombay followed by Air Force mutiny -- and no one even knows about that one because it was completely suppressed by the British. Overall the foundation of the British rule in India was shaking. If we could keep fighting, shouting and sacrificing a few more lives for a few more years, they would have been forced to leave India anyways. But the way our leaders made the deal -- a pact with Mountbatten to grab power -- betrayed the entire history of our national freedom struggle. "Gandhi was against it". But the "higher group of our national liberation struggle" could not wait any longer to put themselves in power. I have been talking -- shouting really -- about this betrayal all my life and I will keep doing that.

(dipanjan: In an interview with Leonard Mosley, Nehru said -- "we were tired men and we were getting on in years too. Few of us could stand the prospect of going to prison again - and if we had stood out for a united India as we wished it, prison obviously awaited us. We saw the fires burning in the Punjab and heard of the killings. The plan of Partition offered a way out and we took it. […] We expected that Partition would be temporary, that Pakistan was bound to come back to us."[The Last Days of British Raj, p-285]

Section 9: Shantiniketan, Rabindranath in national consciousness

We would like to know about your experiences at Shantiniketan.

Most of my significant and memorable experiences of Shantiniketan are associated with Ramkinkar Baij. You do not really need to write about our rowdy and drunken adventures and how we used to barely escape arrests.

(dipanjan:Ritwik's last unfinished documentary was on Ramkinkar and in a sad coincidence, Samaresh Basu's final unfinished -- and arguably his best -- novel Dekhi Nai Phire was also based on Ramkinkar's life)

Did you not have any personal contact with Rabindranath?

Rabindranath used to visit Amrakunja in the morning. His morning lectures -- I do not know why they have not been published yet -- were just incredible and so was his charismatic appearance, his magnetic presence. I can not really say anything more than that.

Were you part of his funeral procession?

On the day he died, I was in our house at Bakulbagan -- my sister used to be a student in Beltala Girls' School. There I heard that he had died. Immediately I started running and there was already a huge crowd. I joined them and followed them all the way.

How do you feel about his absence in our thoughts at the national level? What can progressive democratic culture still get from him?

Everything. I don't know if you remember, one of our comrades -- I will not name him -- "decried Rabindranath" and defamed him using the name "RabindraGupta" in a Marxist magazine. This happened during the Ranadive period. All of us were told not to (read him) and they used to call him names -- "bourgeois this and bourgeois that" -- in a disgusting way. I used to tutor an undergrad girl named Ila who was a sister of Shobha Sen. As soon as I mentioned "RabindraGupta", she just went berserk. Rabindranath is inside our blood, we can not go anywhere without him. No matter which aspect of art you talk about, he is right there. Just look at how that girl reacted -- Bengalis can not live without him. We should not even have to discuss this -- to any Bengali artist, any artist ... (he is extremely important)

But won't you admit that there is a tendency to deny him completely at many levels? Therefore, if you could show some examples from his works...?

I can show plenty. Right now, right here. I do not have any of his books with me, but I do not need books. However, having to convince people about Rabindranath by citing examples is extremely shameful and degrading. Rabindranath is Rabindranath -- perhaps there have been three or four artists of comparable greatness in world history. Just read Sabhyatar Sankat which he wrote just before his death and you will understand. The scoundrels who blaspheme him are absolutely worthless. Unto the last, there is one sentence which will be engraved in my mind -- "to lose faith in mankind is a sin" and therefore, I will not. He is saying that there has been every reason to lose faith, but he will not because it is a crime to do so. "The crisis in civilization" -- there is an English translation as well, just read it. What else can I say? Rabindranath is an ocean and I can not reduce him to a few words. So if you ever find any scum dissing him, tell them on my behalf that I would beat the crap out of them.


Section 10: Classical Music

Which classical musician has influenced you the most? And could you please share a few memories and anecdotes regarding him?

That person -- my guru who initiated me and taught me how to play Sarod -- was one crazy man. Quite a few years ago, he was living at Maihar since he was the court(darbari) musician of Maharaja of Maihar. I went there to direct a documentary on behalf of Sangeet Natak Akademi and then I learned a lot from him as I often used to listen to his reminiscences.

He ran away from home when he was eight. His teacher was his elder brother, Aftabuddin saheb -- a master flute player and a baul as well as a devotee of Kali. All this I heard from Allauddin saheb himself who used to open up to me because he loved me a lot. In his childhood, he used to study at a maktab and on his way, there was a Kali temple. A muslim boy, he was never allowed inside the temple and was often beaten up by Brahmin priests. At night, his elder brother used to tie his feet with ropes to a pole and one night, he ran away in spite of that.

After coming to Calcutta, he used to sleep at Nimtala Ghat and eventually managed to get a chance at Star theatre. That was around the time when prostitutes and call girls used to be the actresses. His job was to play flute and he used to get five rupees a month. Then he moved to Udaipur and tried to meet Wazir Khan -- the greatest Sarod player of his time. At first, Wazir Khan completely ignored him -- we are talking about a period that is one hundred years in the past, a different era altogether -- but ultimately he came up with a plan. He lied on the road in front of Wazir Khan's carriage and would not get up until Wazir Khan agreed to teach him. Back then music used to be a big secret, not easily obtainable. I do not know how much of that era you guys have seen, but I have seen a little bit.

Anyways Wazir Khan finally relented and said -- "all right, why don't you become my servant and do all my chores?" Allauddin then started doing all the housework and never even got to touch an instrument. After two years like that, Wazir Khan admitted that Allauddin deserved to be his disciple and the lessons started which went on for fourteen years. When Wazir Khan finally gave Allauddin Khan saheb the permission to play -- as you know, ostads need to give you explicit permission before you can perform anywhere, for example, my guru died before giving me the permission, so I have never played anywhere except in front of my wife and children and that too I have given up; I have given my Sarod away -- Khan saheb came back to his village in Brahmanbaria.

One day when he was practicing on the bank of Titas, he tried to help out a group of neighborhood boys in finding their ball inside a Masjid and in doing so, he fell down and broke his right arm. All the doctors had given up on fixing it as it was completely shattered, but he returned to Maihar and for days, just prayed to Chamunda Kali without eating or sleeping, and the arm gradually started to heal. I am just repeating what he told me. Anyways the arm was still badly injured and it was the right arm with which he played Sarod. He started relearning everything with his left hand and eventually became the best musician of India. His determination and mental strength were just incredible. I can keep talking about him for hours and it will never end because he is my guru and I am ... Ustad Haafiz Ali Khan is another great Sarod player. Vilayat is unparallel. When he is in mood, only Ali Akbar Khan at his best can probably match him. Ravi Shankar is more of a performer, but they are real musicians. Among the artists that are alive -- I am talking about the vocalists now -- I admire Bhimsen Joshi a lot.

Section 11: Film Society

There is a tendency among film society audience to only watch uncensored vulgar pornographic films. How can we resist this temptation and stop what has been hurting an important movement?

You can not really do anything because some of these rascals -- excuse my language --are only interested in that. And if they demand it, you will show those movies because you are thinking of getting some of your expenses back. "Film society has become another business". You need to "decry" this and loathe this completely, but you don't. This country is in a deep downward spiral. I am a drunk -- and I do not hide the fact; most people know quite well that I drink -- so leave me out of this, but you all need to be a lot more vocal and aggressive. You see, I -- and Satyajit as well -- do not go to watch your film society screenings any more because the films you are exhibiting can not be watched by gentlemen. I do not want to show them to my wife, my daughter. You will have to take up the fight. I can not. I have taken myself out of this. You know what is in my hand and that much I can do, but film society screenings and audience, you will have to...

We are asking you to help us understand why this is...

There is nothing to understand, or analyze. You just need to stop showing those films. What do you think you are doing?

What should be an alternate agenda of film societies then?

In addition to screening good films, you will need to organize discussions, workshops and seminars which can help to inculcate good taste. "That is all". But first, stop exhibiting those horrible films. It just does not make any sense. Primarily Mizoguchi, we need to get all the prints, then from Italy, France... Even in England, Lindsey (Anderson) is doing some good work. Tarkovsky from Russia, Wajda from Poland, Shirley Clarke from America -- "it will run for a year".

কৃতজ্ঞতাঃ http://dipanjanc.blogspot.com/2007/05/interview-with-ritwik-kumar-ghat
ak-1975.html



Name:  lcm          

IP Address : 109.0.80.158 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 10:55 AM

থ্যাংক্স ছোটো-এস


Name:  এলেবেলে          

IP Address : 212.142.70.125 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 06:05 PM

প্রবীর সেন-এর সাক্ষাৎকারটি প্রথমে অতনু পাল সম্পাদিত 'ঋত্বিককুমার ঘটক' (বাণীশিল্প, ১৯৮৮) এ বেরোয় । পরে এই সাক্ষাৎকারটির সাথে মহ. খসরুর আর একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ সাক্ষাৎকার প্রকাশিত হয় সঞ্জয় মুখোপাধ্যায় সম্পাদিত 'চলচ্চিত্র মানুষ এবং আরো কিছু' (দে’জ, ২০০৫) বইটিতে । ওখানে চলচ্চিত্র বিষয়ক ঋত্বিকের বাংলায় নানা লেখা বিধৃত আছে । ঋত্বিক সম্পর্কিত আর একটি জরুরি বই রজত রায় সম্পাদিত 'ঋত্বিক' (সৃষ্টি প্রকাশন, ২০০১) । এই বইটির মতো স্বয়ংসম্পূর্ণ বই বাংলায় নেই বলেই মনে হয় । বিশেষত বইটির শেষে যে সব লেখার বা আলোচনার উল্লেখ রয়েছে তা ঋত্বিক চর্চায় অপরিহার্য ।

আমি এখানে ইংরেজিতে ঋত্বিক চর্চার কিছু নমুনা দিলাম আর দিলাম ঋত্বিকের 'Cinema and I'-এর পিডিএফ যা তাঁর চলচ্চিত্রপঞ্জীর সবচেয়ে বিশ্বস্ত দলিল

১. https://www.alsolikelife.com/shooting/2010/02/ritwik-ghatak-an-online-
primer

২. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/17142/10/10_chapter%
204.pdf

৩. https://www.criterion.com/current/posts/2990-a-river-called-titas-rive
r-of-no-return

৪. https://acrazymindseye.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/cinema-and-i.pdf



Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.11.92 (*)          Date:26 Jul 2017 -- 07:35 PM

অনেককাল বাদে এই ঋত্বিকস্নান। বড় আবিল লাগছে। খুব মনে পড়ছে আমাদের কেওড়তলার আড্ডা। সঙ্গীত-থিয়েটার-ফিল্ম নিয়ে তুমুল আড্ডা
আড্ডায় উঠে আসে সিনেমা ইতিহাসে অসাধারণ তিনটি পতাকা দৃশ্য।

স্পার্টাকাস। দাস বিদ্রোহী। ফুঁসে উঠেছে কোন আদিকাল থেকে মনুষ্যেতর জীবনযাপন করে চলা মানুষগুলো স্পার্টাকাসের নেতৃত্বে। রোম। খ্রীষ্টপূর্ব ৭১। বারবার কেঁপে উঠছে দাস বিদ্রোহের ধাক্কায়। এবার স্পার্টাকাসের সেনাবাহিনীর মুখোমুখি গার্গানাস পর্বতে। সেই পর্বতসানুদেশে রোমের রাজকীয় সৈন্যদলের শিবির। সূর্যোদয়ের সাথে সাথে সৈন্যেরা সারিবাদ্ধ। সেনানায়কের আদেশ ঠিকরে আসছে পাষাণপ্রাচীর থেকে, আর সেই আদেশ যন্ত্রের কুশলতায় পালিত হচ্ছে নিমেষে। দর্শক স্তম্ভিত হতেও ভুলে যাচ্ছে। ক্যামেরা পাহাড় বেয়ে উঠছে দ্রুত। রোম দখল নিচ্ছে গার্গানাস পর্বত। ওই দেখা যায় পর্বত শিখর, সবুজ সবুজ সবুজ চূড়োটি আর তার পশ্চাৎপটে ফিরোজা আকাশ। আর কিছুক্ষন পরেই রাজার সেনা পার হয়ে যাবে ঐ শিখরদেশ। ঠিক তখন, ঠিক তখনই যে আকাশের গায়ে হেলান দিয়ে ছিলো পাহাড়, সে আকাশ জুড়ে, চরাচর জুড়ে, সমস্ত পর্দা জুড়ে ঝলসে ওঠে বিদ্রোহের পতাকা, উজ্জ্বল লাল পতাকা। আমাদের চেতন আমাদের অবচেতন জুড়ে ঝমঝম করে বেজে ওঠে সিমফোনির চূড়ান্ত মুহুর্ত।

মডার্ণ টাইমস, সম্ভবতঃ আধুনিক পৃথিবীর শেষ মহাকাব্য। চার্লির পাশ দিয়ে লোহার রড নিয়ে লরি চলে যায়। বিপদ সংকেত বোঝাতে লরির পিছন থেকে বেরিয়ে থাকা রডে লাগানো লাল কাপড়টি খসে পরে। স্বাভাবিক ভদ্রতায় চার্লি কাপড়টি তুলে নিয়ে দৌড়াতে থাকেন লরির পিছনে লাল কাপড়টি নাড়তে নাড়তে, চালকের দৃষ্টি আকর্ষনের নিমিত্ত। লরি মিলিয়ে যায়। পিছনে আসছিলো কমিউনিষ্টদের মিছিল, সামনে ছিলো রাষ্ট্রের পাহারাদারেরা। মাঝাখানে চার্লি লাল কাপড় হাতে। আতঙ্কিত রাষ্ট্রের চোখে চার্লি হয়ে ওঠেন জঙ্গী কমিউনিষ্ট নেতা।

আসছেন গর্কির মা, পুদভকিনের মা হয়ে। উঠে আসছে সেই যাদু পতাকা দৃশ্যটি। মে দিবসের মিছিলে পতাকা হাতে পাভেলের উপর নেমে আসছে চাবুক। খসে পড়ছে লাল পতাকা। তুলে নিচ্ছেন মা, গর্কির মা। চাবুকে ক্ষতবিক্ষত মায়ের হাত থেকেও খসে পড়ছে পতাকা। আর ঠিক এইখান থেকে গর্কির হাতের পতাকা তুলে নিচ্ছেন পুদভকিন। সিনেমার ইতিহাসে অমর হয়ে থাকতে আসছে সে। জুম আউট। গোটা মিছিল জুড়ে ঘুরছে পতাকা হাতে হাতে। জুম আউট। পতাকা ঘুরছে সারা মস্কো জুড়ে, সারা রাশিয়ার মানচিত্র জুড়ে। জুম আউট করছি আমরা। পতাকা ঘুরছে ঘুরছে ঘুরছে সৌরমন্ডলের তৃতীয় গ্রহটি জুড়ে।

এক অজানা ভাষায় আক্রান্ত হচ্ছি আমরা। যে ভাষার বাংলা প্রতিশব্দ ঋত্বিক।



Name:  i          

IP Address : 147.157.8.253 (*)          Date:27 Jul 2017 -- 11:03 AM

ভালো আলোচনা হয়েছিল-
http://www.guruchandali.com/blog/2016/06/12/1465730764248.html>
ebyateeta:
<http://www.guruchandali.com/guruchandali.Controller?portletId=8&porletPage=2&contentType=content&uri=content43>

<http://www.guruchandali.com/amaderkatha/guruchandali.Controller?portletId=8&porletPage=2&contentType=content&uri=content1371742591656&contentPageNum=8>

<http://www.guruchandali.com/amaderkatha/guruchandali.Controller?portletId=8&porletPage=2&contentType=content&uri=content1316311100109&contentPageNum=1


Name:  i          

IP Address : 147.157.8.253 (*)          Date:27 Jul 2017 -- 11:05 AM

ভালো আলোচনা হয়েছিল-
http://www.guruchandali.com/blog/2016/06/12/1465730764248.html
এব্যতীতঃ
http://www.guruchandali.com/guruchandali.Controller?portletId=8&porlet
Page=2&contentType=content&uri=content43


http://www.guruchandali.com/amaderkatha/guruchandali.Controller?portle
tId=8&porletPage=2&contentType=content&uri=content1371742591656&conten
tPageNum=8


http://www.guruchandali.com/amaderkatha/guruchandali.Controller?portle
tId=8&porletPage=2&contentType=content&uri=content1316311100109&conten
tPageNum=1



Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.107.62 (*)          Date:13 Aug 2017 -- 11:49 AM

ঋত্বিক, ইয়ুঙ্গ, মার্কস ও ক্যাচাল।
প্রথম ছবি নাগরিক থেকে যু-ত-গ সবকটি ছবিতেই দেশভাগ (বা বলা ভালো বঙ্গভঙ্গ) ছাড়া আর যে বিষয়টা নিয়ে ঋত্বিক আচ্ছন্ন সেটা হলো মহামাতৃকার মৌলপ্রবণতা। এই মৌলপ্রবণতার ধারণাটি উনি পেয়েছিলেন ইয়ুঙ্গের থেকে।
ইয়ুঙ্গ নিয়ে সামান্য যা জানি।
ফ্রয়েড আমাদের মনোজগতকে তিনটি স্তরে সাজিয়েছেন - ১) চেতন, ২)প্রাকচেতন, ৩)অবচেতন। ইয়ুঙ্গও তিনটি স্তরের কথাই বলেছেন, কিন্তু তার দ্যোতনা পুরোপুরি আলাদা। ইয়ুঙ্গের স্তরগুলি হলো ১) চেতন, ২) ব্যক্তিগত অবচেতন, ৩) সামূহিক অবচেতন।
চেতন - যা আমাদের সাথে বহির্জগতের সম্পর্ককে সরাসরি নিয়ন্ত্রন করে, পারিপার্শিক ঘটমান বাস্তবকে বুদ্ধি দিয়ে বিশ্লেষন করে।
ব্যক্তিগত অবচেতন - আমাদের বুদ্ধি দিয়ে বাস্তবের মোকাবিলা ও মূল্যায়নে আমরা নানা সময়ে ব্যর্থ হই। হেরে যাই। সেই সব অনাকাঙ্খিত অনুভুতিনিচয় আমাদের এই ঘরে সুপ্ত থাকে, যাকে আমরা ভুলে যেতে চাই, কিন্তু পারি কোই!! এই স্তরটি প্রত্যকটি মানুষের ক্ষেত্রে আলাদা আলাদা হতেই হবে। কারন দুটো মানুষ কখনই একই বিষয়ে একইভাবে পরাজিত বোধ করে না, একই ভূগোল, পরিবার, পরিবেশে থাকলেও না।
সামূহিক অবচেতন - ঠিক এই জায়গাতেই অবস্থান করে মানুষের মৌলপ্রবণতাগুলি যা অনেকক্ষেত্রেই একধরনের। এগুলো ব্যক্তিগত অবচেতনের ভিতরেই থাকে আরও আরও গভীরে লুকিয়ে, প্রায় অনস্তিত্বের মতো কিছু অনুভুতিপুঞ্জ, যা জন্ম নিয়েছে আদিকাল থেকে মনোজগতে প্রভাব ফেলে যাওয়া নানান বাস্তব, যার ব্যাখ্যা মানুষ সবসময়ে করে উঠতে পারেনি। এগুলিকেই ইয়ুঙ্গ বলছেন মৌলপ্রবণতা।
আমি ইয়ুঙ্গ বিশেষজ্ঞ নই। অধিকারী মানুষ এবিষয়ে অলোকপাত করলে উপকৃত হই।
এই মৌলপ্রবণতাগুলি নানা ধরনের, জ্ঞানবৃদ্ধ, মহামাতৃকা, মহাপাশব, প্রচন্ডরুদ্র, মোহিনী, মহামায়া................ ইত্যাকার।
এর মধ্যে ঋত্বিক আক্তান্ত হলেন মহামতৃকার মৌলপ্রবণতায়।
"প্রথম মানুষের যে শিল্পকলার নিদর্শন আমরা পাই তা হচ্ছে প্যালিওলিথিক যুগের স্পেন ও ফ্রান্সের মধ্যবর্তী পিরানিজ পর্বতমালায় গভীর গুহাগুলিতে নগ্ন মাতৃকামূর্তি। এবং এই গ্রেট মাদার সারা পৃথিবীর বিভিন্ন জাতির চেতনায় আজও হন্ট করছে। এর দুই রূপ - এক হচ্ছে বরাভয়, সোফিয়া, আর এক হচ্ছে ত্রাসদত্রী কালী, চন্ডীর রূপ। আমাদের পুরাণে এই দেবীকে একত্রে দুই রূপে কল্পনা করা হয়েছে, 'দেবীসূক্ত'। এবং আমাদের সমাজের মজ্জায় মজ্জায় ঢুকে আছে এই মাতৃভাবরূপী আকিটাইপটি।" (মানব সমাজ, আমাদের ঐতিহ্য, ছবি করা ও আমার প্রচেষ্টা - ঋত্বিক ঘটক, চিত্রবীক্ষণ, পৃঃ ৮০)
আপাততঃ এটুকু। আরও অনেক আছে। সেটা ক্রমশঃ..........


Name:  এলেবেলে          

IP Address : 212.142.81.92 (*)          Date:13 Aug 2017 -- 12:58 PM

এ ব্যাপারে সবচেয়ে ভালো বইটি হল সুগত সিংহ-র 'যুক্তি ... তক্কো ... ঋত্বিক ...'। সহজপাঠ থেকে প্রকাশিত বইটির বর্তমান দাম মাত্র ১০০ টাকা । আগ্রহীরা পড়ে দেখতে পারেন । কল্লোলবাবুর ক্রমশ-র অপেক্ষায় থাকলাম আপাতত ।


Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.51.77 (*)          Date:13 Aug 2017 -- 02:51 PM

এলেবেলেকে ধন্যবাদ। আমি লেখাটার শেষে কৃতজ্ঞতা জানাবো ভেবেছিলাম সুগতবাবু ও লেখাটিকে। বইটি পড়িনি। লেখাটি ছাপা হয়েছিলো যুগপট পত্রিকার নভেম্বর ২০০৩ সংখ্যায়।

ইয়ুঙ্গের মতে এই মৌলপ্রবণতাগুলি যৌথ, নৈর্ব্যক্তিক ও বিবর্তিত হতে থাকা। হয়তো এই বিষয়টাই ঋত্বিককে প্রাণিত করেছিলো মার্কস আর ইয়ুঙ্গকে মেলাতে।তিনি মনে করেছিলেন সামূহিক চেতনা বা শ্রেণীচেতনা ও সামূহিক অবচেতন একে অন্যের পরিপূরক। আর ঠিক এইখানেই গন্ডোগোলটা পেকে ওঠে। মার্কসের বলছেন, ব্যক্তিমানসের গঠনে ও কাজে পারিপার্শ্বিকের ভূমিকাই নিয়ন্ত্রক। অথচ ইয়ুঙ্গের মত হলো মৌলপ্রবণতার মধ্যেই সমস্ত অভিজ্ঞতা ও প্রবণতা সুপ্ত থাকে, চারিপাশের ছোঁয়ায় তা জেগে ওঠে। অর্থাৎ অভিজ্ঞতা নির্মিত হয় না, তা শাশ্বত। সুপ্ত থেকে জাগরণে রূপান্তরিত হয় মাত্র।
ফলতঃ এই সব পরষ্পর বিরোধী জীবনচর্যাসমূহ ঋত্বিককে ক্রমশঃ ব্যক্তি ও স্রষ্টা হিসাবে জটিল করে তুলেছে। মৌলপ্রবণতাগুলি যেহেতু সংজ্ঞায়িত করা যায় না, যা করা যায় তা হলো একধরণের প্রতিমা নির্মান। এবং মৌলপ্রবণ্তার সবচেয়ে বড়ো ঝামেলাটও ঠিক ঐখানেই। দৃশ্য, শ্রাব্য, ঘ্রাণ, স্বাদ বা স্পর্শ যে কোন কিছুর মধ্য দিয়ে বা এর একাধিক গুণের মধ্য দিয়ে যখন অনুভূতি বিধৃত হয়, তখনই তখনই তখনই সেটি খন্ডিত ও অসম্পূর্ণ হয়ে যায়। ফলে মৌলপ্রবণতা চিন্তার ক্ষেত্রে যতটা সম্পূর্ণ, প্রতিমার নির্মানে তা ততোটাই অসম্পূর্ণ হয়ে পড়ে। একে হয়তো বোঝা যায়, কিন্তু বোঝানো যায় না।
এই না বোঝানোকে বোঝানোর দায়িত্ব ঋত্বিক স্বই্চায় তার কাঁধে তুলে নিয়েছিলেন। ফলে তাঁর সৃষ্টির ভিতর যে অপরিসীম স্তরমালা আমরা পাই, তা আমাদের হতবাক করে দেয়। আমরা বিস্মিত হতেও ভুলে যাই।
ওনার সব ছ্বিতেই কম বেশী এই না বোঝাকে বোঝনোর অকুতি প্রচ্ছন্ন ও প্রকট। সবচেয়ে বেশী বোধহয় ছিলো অযান্ত্রিকে। অথচ ওটাই ওনার ছবিগুলির মধ্যে মানুষের সবচেয়ে পছন্দের। কারনটা বোধয় যন্ত্রের ওপর প্রাণ আরোপের চেষ্টাটি। যা মানুষের কাছে অভিনব ঠেকেছিলো।


Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.51.77 (*)          Date:13 Aug 2017 -- 03:08 PM

মৌলপ্রবণতা আর তার প্রতিমাকে ধরতে চাওয়ার মধ্যে অন্যায় কিছু নেই। একজন শিল্পী তার শিল্পকে কিভাবে উপস্থাপিত করবেন সেটা একান্তই তাঁরা বিষয়। কিন্তু কোন কিছুতেই আচ্ছন্ন হয়ে পড়াটা হয়তো শিল্পের ক্ষেত্রে কখনো কখনো সীমাবদ্ধতার কারন হয়ে যায়। কিন্তু এখানেই ঋত্বিক অসাধারণ। স্ব-আরোপিত এতোসব প্রতিকূলতা নিয়েও যে কটি ছবি আমাদের উপহার দিয়ে গেছেন, বিশ্বসিনেমার ইতিহাসে তাদের জুড়ি মেলা ভার। একমাত্র তিতাসের উপসংহারটি নিয়ে অনেকেরই আপত্তি আছে। অনেকের মতে ঋত্বিক একটু বেশীই স্বাধীনতা নিয়ে ফেলেছেন সেখানে। ঐ আশাবাদ অরোপিত মনে হয়েছে।
আর ঠিক এটাই ঋত্বিক। ওনার জীবন ওনার শিল্পের মতোই কোন পরিপাটি ভদ্রসভ্য হওয়ার দায় পালন করেনি। এব্যাপারে ঋত্বিকের দুটি যমজ ভাই ছিলেন - রামকিঙ্কর ও বিজন।


Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.37.75 (*)          Date:14 Aug 2017 -- 08:04 AM

পুরোনো মানুষদের কাছে শুনেছি, ঋত্বিক লেন্সটা ভালো বুঝতেন। লেন্স নিয়ে ওনার প্রচুর পরীক্ষা-নিরীক্ষা আছে। কেউ কি এই নিয়ে কিছু লিখতে পারেন? শুনেছি মেঘে ঢাকা তারার, যে রাতে মোর দুয়ারগুলি গানের সময়, ছেঁচা বেড়ার ফাঁক দিয়ে উপচে আসা আলো নাকি অন্ধকার সে সব নিয়ে দিনেনবাবুর লেখা আছে। কেউ সন্ধান দিতে আরেন?



Name:  এলেবেলে          

IP Address : 160.129.177.145 (*)          Date:14 Aug 2017 -- 05:47 PM

দীনেন গুপ্ত লিখছেন --- 'মেঘে ঢাকা তারা'য় একটা গান ছিল — 'যে রাতে মোর দুয়ারগুলি' — গানটা একটা শটে নেওয়া। ক্যামেরা এগিয়েছে, ক্যামেরা পেছিয়েছে — একটা শট। সুপ্রিয়ার ক্লোজ আপ থেকে গানটা ব্যাক করেছে, আবার ফরোয়ার্ড হয়ে গেছে। উনি আমাকে বললেন, আমি একটা ডিজাইন চাইছি, ডিজাইনটা কেন আসছে না বুঝতে পারছি না। ঋত্বিকদা বললেন, ঐ যে ছাঁচের বেড়াটা আছে, বেড়াটাকে একেবারে বার্ন্ট করে দে। আমি বললাম, লাইট সিন আছে, বার্ন্ট করে দিল খারাপ লাগবে। উনি আমাকে জিজ্ঞেস করলেন, তুই কী করতে পারিস? আমি বললাম, পেছনদিকে একটা হোয়াইট ক্লোথ দিয়ে দিচ্ছি, দিয়ে তাতে খুব কড়া লাইট দিচ্ছি। তা হলে ঐ ছাঁচের বেড়া, ওর যে জালিগুলো, যে হোল-গুলো আছে, ওই হোল-গুলো থেকে একটা রে আসবে, গ্লেয়ারিং একটা ব্যাপার হবে। উনি বললেন, খুব ভালো করে দেখ। আমি ভাবলাম এটাকে একটু আউট অফ ফোকাস করে দিই, তা হলে একেবারে স্টারের মতো ফর্ম করবে। সুপ্রিয়াকে ততখানি ডিসট্যান্সে বসিয়ে এমন করা হল যেন পেছন থেকে স্টারের মতো জ্যোতি বেরচ্ছে। ঠিক ইফেক্টটা করা গিয়েছিল।

লেখাটা প্রথম প্রকাশিত হয়েছিল চিত্রবীক্ষণ-এর ঋত্বিক সংখ্যায়, ১৯৭৬ এ । বই আকারে পাওয়া যাবে দীপায়ন প্রকাশিত 'সাক্ষাৎ ঋত্বিক' এ।

কল্লোলবাবুকে অনুরোধ করব সত্যজিৎ টইটিতে ঋত্বিকের মেলোড্রামার ব্যবহার সম্পর্কে যে অনবদ্য বিশ্লেষণটি করেছিলেন সেটা এখানেও রাখতে । ওটাই রাখতে পারেন বা সামান্য বিস্তৃত করে নতুন কিছু লিখতেও পারেন ।


Name:  কল্লোল          

IP Address : 233.227.54.189 (*)          Date:15 Aug 2017 -- 08:06 AM

এলেবেলে। বাবুটা কাটিয়ে দিন। সে আর খুঁজে পেলাম না।
আলাদা করেই কিছু বলার চেষ্টা করি।
ঋত্বিক আর বিজন এঁরা দুজনেই শিল্পভাষা হিসাবে অতিনাটককে গুরুত্ব দিয়েছেন। এরা মনে করতেন অতিনাটক আমাদের দেশজ শিল্পভাষা। সেই যে রবিঠাকুর বলেছিলেন, (ঠিকঠাক মনে নেই - নিজের মতো করে বলছি) - একটি নারী ভরা কলসীকাঁখে হাঁটছে। তার হাঁটার দোলায় জল চলকে পড়ছে কলসী থেকে। ঐ চলকে পড়া জলটিই শিল্প। শিল্পের এই উপচে পরা ভারতীয় উপমহাদেশে ভহুবার দেখা গেছে। গ্রীক/রোমান ভাষ্কর্য আর ভারতীয় ভাষ্কর্যের তুলনা করলেই বিষয়টা উঠে আসে। গ্রীক/রোমান ভাষ্কর্যে সৌন্দর্য নিক্তিতে মাপা। ঠিক যেখানে যতটুকু, সেখানে ততোটুকুই। উল্টোদিকে ভারতীয় উপমহাদেশের মুর্তিগুলোয় "আধিক্যের" প্রাধান্য। গলা ও কোমরে ত্রীবলি (তিন থাক), গোল গোল হাত পা, পুরুষের মধ্যপ্রদেশ অনেকক্ষেত্রে স্ফীত। পুরুষের বক্ষপট, চওড়া কিন্তু পেশীবহুল নয়, নারীর বক্ষ ঈষৎ নিম্নমুখী ও বর্তুলাকার, গ্রীক/রোমান নারীদের মতো পীনোন্নত নয় বরং ন্যাগ্রাধীপরিমন্ডলা। লক্ষণীয়, ইউরোপের পাগান মূর্তিগুলি কিন্তু ওরকম নিক্তিমাপা নয়।
আমাদের জীবনে আবেগের প্রকাশ অনেক বেশি উচ্চকিত। আমরা হাউহাউ করে কাঁদি, হোহো করে হাসি এবং সেটা কোন দোষের নয়। বরং সেটা না করাটাই দোষের।
এসবের প্রভাব শিল্পে থাকবেই। ফলে মানুষকে যেখানে প্রভাবিত করার প্রশ্ন থাকে সেখানে অতিনাটক একটা বড় ভূমিকা নেই এই উপমহাদেশে।
এখনে মানুষের মনে থেকে যায় - আমার সাজানো বাগান শুকিয়ে গেলো......... , দাদা, আমি বাঁচতে চাই, রাইত কতো হইলো - উত্তর মেলে না, মে-ঢা-তায় কাশি ও রক্তমাখা রুমাল, নীতার সিঁড়ি দিয়ে নেমে আসা ও চাবুক............এসবই মানুষের স্মৃতিতে অমলিন।
এরকম আরও বহুকিছু লেখাই যায়।
আপাততঃ এইই থাক।


Name:  এলেবেলে          

IP Address : 212.142.70.240 (*)          Date:15 Aug 2017 -- 08:55 PM

কল্লোলবাবু (মাফ করবেন, ‘বাবু’ কাটাতে আরও কিছুটা সময়ের প্রয়োজন), দীনেন গুপ্তর আসল লেখাটা দিলাম । দেখুন পড়তে পারেন কিনা । আমি এসব ব্যাপারে খুবই আনাড়ি, যদি রে এ ব্যাপারে সাহায্য করেন তো দীপক মজুমদারের লেখা বা ঋত্বিকের মেলোড্রামার ব্যবহার নিয়ে আর একটা ভালো লেখার পাতাগুলোর ছবি দিতে পারি । আলোচনা চালিয়ে যান, পারলে আর একটু দীর্ঘ লিখুন ।

প্রথম পাতা https://postimg.org/image/s9bdfd5zh/
দ্বিতীয় https://postimg.org/image/naj664wdn/
তৃতীয় https://postimg.org/image/7uj6f0uat/
চতুর্থ https://postimg.org/image/kue1phzbn/
পঞ্চম https://postimg.org/image/3ro6keefn/

এর সাথে থাকল বেবি ইসলামের লেখার একটা প্রয়োজনীয় পাতা
https://postimg.org/image/kzeqci709/



Name:  i          

IP Address : 147.157.8.253 (*)          Date:21 Aug 2017 -- 04:55 AM

http://www.anandabazar.com/supplementary/pustokporichoi/book-review-of
-illuminating-agony-ritwik-1.660809?ref=hm-new-stry


ছোটাই

এই সুতোর পাতাগুলি [1] [2]     এই পাতায় আছে17--47